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InPROMPT "Integrated Chemical Processes in Liquid Multiphase Systems" has pursued the long-term objective of researching novel phase systems for homogeneously catalyzed, multiphase production processes in the sense of green chemistry, as well as developing and demonstrating efficient processes. The project is divided into three project areas. In project area A we investigate the chemical and physical fundamentals of different homogeneously catalyzed reactions (hydroformylation, methoxycarbonylation, hydroaminomethylation) considering screening of phase systems and catalysts, reaction kinetics and phase behavior.

During the first research period the hydroformylation of 1-dodecene in surfactant modified multiphase systems were investigated. The reaction is performed by a highly active and selective (aldehyde linearity of 99%) catalyst system consisting of Rh(acac)(CO)2 and the bidentate ligand SulfoXantPhos.

Schematic phase diagram of nonionic surfactant.

The three-phase region of this pseudo-ternary mixture was found to be the most suitable reaction medium for the hydroformylation due to beneficial concentration distribution of reactants and catalyst. Recycling of catalyst by phase separation in a continuously operated miniplant was executed successfully for a operation time of 100 hours indicating no loss in activity and rhodium leaching into product phase below 1 ppm.

In the second funding period the concepts were successfully transferred to further catalytic reactions (methoxycarbonylation and hydroxycarbonylation of 1-dodecene). It was shown that the use of a simple biphasic system is adequate for the methoxycarbonylation of 1-dodecene.  On the other hand, the use of surfactant modified systems are necessary for the hydroxycarbonylation of 1‑dodecene.

Recently, we got a third funding period, wherein the reductive amination of long chain aldehydes with diethylamine to fatty amines will be investigated. The focus is set on kinetic and parameter studies of this reaction to develop a combined reaction of hydroformylation and reductive amination, also called hydroaminomethylation as a tandem reaction.


·         TU Dortmund
·         OvG Magdeburg
·         MPI Magdeburg
·         TU Darmstadt
·         HTW Berlin
·         KIT Karlsruhe


Ariane Weber

Bachir Bibouche

Johannes Wunderlich

Marcel Schmidt



·         Pogrzeba, T.; Illner, M.; Schmidt, M.; Repke, J.-U. Microemulsion Systems as Switchable Reaction Media for the Catalytic Upgrading of Long-Chain Alkenes. Chem. Ing. Tech., 89(4), 459-463, 2017. [doi: 10.1002/cite.201600140]

·         Schmidt, M.; Burgert, B.; Szilvási, T.; Schomäcker, R.; Driess, M.: Improving the Catalytic Activity in the Rhodium-Mediated Hydroformylation of Styrene by a Bis(N-heterocyclic silylene) Ligand. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 9, 1284-1291, 2017. [doi: 10.1002/ejic.201700148]

·         Schmidt, M.; Pogrzeba, T.; Hohl, L.; Weber, A.; Kielholz, A.; Kraume, M.; Schomäcker, R.: Palladium catalyzed methoxycarbonylation of 1-dodecene in biphasic systems - Optimization of catalyst recycling. Mol. Catal., 439, 1-8, 2017. [doi:org/10.1016/j.mcat.2017.06.014]

·         Schwarze, M. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) – state of the art. Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., Advance Article, 2017. [doi: 10.1039/C6EW00324A]

·         Pogrzeba, T.; Müller, D.; Illner, M.; Schmidt, M.; Kasaka, Y.; Weber, A.; Wozny, G.; Schomäcker, R.; Schwarze, M. Superior catalyst recycling in surfactant based multiphase systems – Quo vadis catalyst complex? Chem. Eng. Process., 99, 155-166, 2016. [doi:10.1016/j.cep.2015.09.003]

·         Pogrzeba, T.; Schmidt, M.; Hohl, L.; Weber, A.; Buchner, G.; Schulz, J.; Schwarze, M.; Kraume, M.; Schomäcker, R. Catalytic reactions in aqueous surfactant-free multiphase emulsions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 55(50), 12765-12775, 2016. [doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.6b03384]

·         Schmidt, M.; Pogrezba, T.; Stehl, D.; Sachse, R.; Schwarze, M.; von Klitzing, R.; Schomäcker, R. Verteilungsgleichgewichte von Liganden in mizellaren Lösungsmittelsystemen. Chem. Ing. Tech., 88(1-2), 119–127, 2016. [doi:10.1002/cite.201500125]

·         Pogrzeba, T.; Müller, D.; Hamerla, T.; Esche, E.; Paul, N.; Wozny, G.; Schomäcker, R. Rhodium-Catalyzed Hydroformylation of Long-Chain Olefins in Aqueous Multiphase Systems in a Continuously Operated Miniplant. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 54(48), 11953-11960, 2015. [doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.5b01596]

·         Schwarze, M.; Pogrzeba, T.; Seifert, K.; Hamerla, T.; Schomäcker, R. Recent Developments in Hydrogenation and Hydroformylation in Surfactant Systems. Catal. Today, 247, 55-63, 2015. [doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2014.06.026]

·         Schwarze, M.; Pogrzeba, T.; Volovych, I.; Schomäcker, R. Microemulsion Systems for Catalytic Reactions and Processes. Catal. Sci. Technol., 5,  24-33, 2015. [doi:10.1039/C4CY01121J]

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